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Principles of membrane separation


Principles of membrane separation

Principles of membrane separation

Among several principles of membrane separation, such as pressure difference, concentration difference, and ion exchange, the principles of separation by pressure difference are briefly outlined here.

Separation by the pressure difference
Reverse osmosis (RO)

Separation by the pressure difference Reverse osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration involves separating thick and dilute solutions with a membrane, applying pressure bigger than the osmotic pressure to the thick solution side so that only water molecules transfer through the membrane to the dilute solution side, and thus separating ions and low-molecular-weight organic substances.

Ultrafiltration (UF)

Ultrafiltration (UF)

Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane sieves out molecules larger than its pores, where the size is determined by the size of solute molecules, and separates, fractionates, condenses, and purifies the solute.

Microfiltration (MF)

Microfiltration (MF)

Microfiltration (MF) membrane is used to efficiently separate suspended substances and colloid particles in a liquid, thus purifying it.

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Information on other separation technologies

Differences and characteristics of separation technologies

The characteristics of separation technologies used for solid-liquid separation, including membrane filtration, are summarized.

What is membrane separation?

Classification of membrane filtration and target components are explained.

Structure of membrane modules

Membrane filtration, one of the separation technologies, will be briefly explained.

Principles of membrane separation

Separation methods that use pressure difference are outlined.

What is cross-flow filtration?

See here for the differences between dead-end filtration and cross-flow filtration.

Membrane function

Brief examples of membrane separation technology applications for each membrane type.